• The Library of Thurgarton Priory

The following catalogue of books is based on folio 158 of BL MS 3548 and would have been only part of the library of St Peter’s Priory, the Augustinian house at Thurgarton. It is taken from pages 414 to 426 of The libraries of the Augustinian canons. Corpus of British Medieval Library Catalogues, Vol. 6 (Eds.) T. Webber, A.G.Watson ( London 1998) with additional brief explanatory notes.

Parisiensis de victis et Virtutibus in ii voluminibus - from Verbum abbreviatum, a manual of moral theology for preachers written by Peter the Chanter a 12th c. Parisian theologian
Distinccoines in theologial usque ad capitulum leuis vel leuitas in quaterno

a Narraciones deuote – stories of devotion
b magister historiiarum abbreviates – short version probably of ‘Historia Scholastica’ a popular history by 12th c. French theologian Petrus Comesta
c Narraciones de vii sapientibus – possibly ‘Dolopathus - the king and seven sages’ a Latin prose written by 12th c. monk John of Alta Silva in Lorraine.
d Item officium sancta trinitatis metrice - probably a rhymed office of the Trinity written by 13th c. John Peckham Archbishop of Canterbury.
e Item Hugo de consciencia – work by 12th c. Augustinian theologian Hugh of Saint Victor.

a Ricardus de sancto Victore de potestate ligandi atque soluendi – writings of Scottish born theologian Richard , Prior of Saint Victor abbey near Paris
b Sermo sancti Augustini de castitate – sermon by St Augustine on Chastity
c Item soliloquia eiusdem - Soliloquies by St Augustine

Revelaciones sancta Matildis - probably The Revelations of St Mechthilde of Hackeborn a 13th c. nun famous for her beautiful singing and accounts of her visions.

Revelationes sancta Katherine de Senys - probably ‘ The dialogue of St Catherine of Siena’ in which the visions of this 14th c. nun are described. She was instrumental in reuniting the papacy back to Rome and is with St Francis the patron saint of Italy.

Revelaciones sancte Brigide – Revelations of the visions of the 14th c. St Birgitta, patron saint of Sweden and founder of the Order of Brigittine nuns. The book was produced by the bishop of Jaen, Alphonse of Pecha one of Brigitta’s devotees and the account became very popular in England.

a Vita sancti benedicti – Life of St Benedict probably from Pope Gregory’s ‘Second Dialogue’
b Vite diversorum patrum – lives of various church fathers
c Vita sancti Wilfrici – St Wulfric of Haselbury, Somerset was an 11th c. hermit whose cult became very popular in 12th c. England - his life was written by John abbot of the Cistercian abbey at Forde.
d Vita sancti Godrici - St Godric of Finchale near Durham was a greatly revered 12th c. hermit whose life was recorded by his contemporary Reginald a monk at Durham.

a Quaternus Nicholai Triuet – Nicholas Trivet was a 13th c. Dominican friar who wrote many works on history and theology – it is not clear which book is referred to here.
b Meditaciones Bernardi – this may be meditations on the human condition usually ascribed to St Bernard.
c Libellus de modo vivendi – popular short letter written by Cistercian monk Thomas of Froidmont for his sister Margaret of Jerusalem. They were born in Beverley Yorks in the 12th century. The letter is sometimes called ‘The Golden Epistle’ but other works share that title.
d Quedam summa de viciis capitalibus
e Tractatus de x mandates – ‘On the Ten Commandments’ written by Robert Grosseteste 13th c. Bishop of Lincoln
f Speculum peccatoris – the 'Mirror of Sins', author unclear
g Item xii capitula Ricardi Hampole - 'The Mending of Life ‘ by Richard Rolle of Hampole, 1290-1349, hermit and mystic.

a Algorismus - text on mathematics based on Arabic writings
b De diuinacione demonum – St Augustine’s ‘The divination of demons’
c De blasfemia in spiritum sanctum – blasphemy against the Holy Spirit
d Medicine
e Compotus – calculations
f Theorica planetarum – standard mediaeval text on astronomy based on earlier Ptolaemic and Arabic work –authorship of mediaeval versions not certain.
g Indulgence romane – on indulgences
h Prophecia scilicet versus Bridlyngton - ‘The Prophecy of St John Of Bridlington’ was a 14th c. book of 28 poems of uncertain authorship although commonly ascribed to John Thwing 14th c. Augustinian Prior of Bridlington,Yorks and the last Englishman to be canonised before the Reformation.

a Epistola W Hilton – Walter Hilton was a canon of Thurgarton Priory in the late 14th century. This is probably a copy of his letter written to Adam Horsley encouraging him in his plan to retire from the civil service and become a Carthusian monk at Beauvale Priory.
b De iii generibus inclusionis – rules concerning the solitary religious life.
c Nemo leyditur nisi a seipso – a sermon by John Chrystostom 4th c. church father and Archbishop of Constantinople.
d libri Johannes Rosbruk – Jan van Ruusbrec was a 14th c. Flemish mystic who wrote many books on meditation and the spiritual life . He described ‘ a spiritual ladder of Christian attainment’ an idea similar to that of Walter Hilton of Thurgarton in his ‘Ladder of Perfection’
e Itinerarium Thomas Bonaventur – ‘Journey of the mind into God’ written by Bonaventure 13th c. Franciscan Cardinal Bishop and theologian.
f Item de itineribus eternitatis secundum eundem – possibly ‘ The seven ways to God’ written by 14th c. Franciscan mystic Rudolph of Biberach.
g Sermo ductus est Ihesus in desertum – sermon on Jesus in the desert.

a calendar
b Allegoria history secundum magistrum petrum – History by Peter Comestor, French theologian and historian and Chancellor of Notre – Dame, Paris.
c Figuraciones histor gen – a work on the genealogical history of the bible by French scholar and theologian Peter of Poitiers ( d 1215)
d Alredus de amicica - a work on ‘Spiritual Friendship’ by Aelred, 12th c. Cistercian Abbot of Riveaulx, Yorks.

a Anathomia Galieni Anatomy text possibly by Richard of Wendover a famous 13th c. English physician who studied at Salerno and Paris.
b de coloribus phisice –
c Alfabetum herbarum – one of the many alphabetical lists of herbs and their properties.
d Quid pro quo – a list of alternative medical ingredients
e Lamfrancus Tractatus de Arte Sirurgie – a treatise on surgery by Lanfranc of Milan a 13th c. Professor of Surgery at Paris.
f De aquis tingentibus diversos colores
g Secretum philosophorum – a popular early 14th c. book of riddles, tricks and mathematical short cuts
h Item iij quaterni de medicines in j quaterno – four books on medicine bound in one volume

Several treatise on astronomy, astrology and the astrolabe
a Milk et breed – Chaucer’s ‘Treatise on the Astrolabe’
b De naturis planetarum
c Due composito nauicule optima –
d In quolibet enim mense – a work on the Zodiac
e Tractatus ad faciendum astrolabium –
f Costa ben Luca -

Items b to f survive in a bound volume MS 358 in the Royal College of Physicians, London.

a De adventu Normannorum in Angliam – account of the Norman invasion
b Item alia Vincene in speculo hist – Vincent of Beauvois was a 13th c. friar near Paris who wrote an encyclopaedia of history down to the year 1240. Entitled ‘ The Mirror of History’ this item from Thurgarton was probably an extract of this enormous work which came in over 30 volumes.
c Item cronica Martini de pontificibus – Martin of Troppau was a friar and papal chaplain to Clement IV. Martin wrote ‘ Chronica Ponticium et Imperatorum’ a popular history of the world for mediaeval readers. His history is one of the sources of the mythical story of a female pope - the Papess Joan.

Rosamedicine cum aliis in uno volumine legato – The Rosa Medicinae was a popular herbal medicinal written in 1314 by John of Gaddesden a fellow of Merton College Oxford. Gaddesden may have been the model for Chaucer’s ‘Doctor of Physick’ in the Canterbury Tales.

Antidotarium Nicholai cum nominali herbarum – 12th c. medicinal herbal text by Nicolai of Salerno probably copied from earlier Arab texts.

a Oraciones pro quolibet psalmo
b Medicine Mesue – texts based on writings of Mesue an 8th c. Arabic physician
c Alie medicine – alternative medicines
d A capite ad pedes – probably Guglielmo de Brescia’s 13th c. text for ‘ diseases from the head to the feet’
e Practica Johannis Arden – manual of 14th c surgeon, John of Ardene from Newark
Mainly medical texts which form the bulk of BL MS 3548

a Lapidarus - lapidaries - lists of stones and their properties, including their healing effects, were in common use in the mediaeval era ; one of the most popular was Liber lapidum a poem on the virtues of stones by Marbodius a 12 c. Bishop of Rennes.
b Macer de virtutue herbarum – an 11th c herbal probably written by Bishop Odo of Meung and based on the original text by Pliny. The Macer Floridius lists the healing properties of over 70 herbs and most mediaeval herbals were based on this text.
c de aliis mediciniis – four other booklets on other medicines
d aliis friuolos – other studies

Theological texts
a Inquisicio confessorum – Inquiry into confessions
b De Manducacione corporis Christi – on the eucharist
c Templum domini – written by Robert Grosseteste , 13th c. Bishop of Lincoln , this was a popular pastoral manual for priests.
d Encheridion Augustini – a treatise on Christian piety based on Faith, Hope and Love written by St Augustine, 5th c. Bishop of Hippo.
The following four titles are identical to those found in Bodl MS Douce 114. and probably formed part of the library at the Carthusian house of Beauvale Priory Notts
e,f,g Vitae trium virginum scilicet – the life of three mystical female saints
e Elizabethde Spalbec by Philip of Clairvoux
f Christina Mirabilis by Thomas of Cantimpre
g Maria Ogniacensis
h de vita sancta Katerine de Senys – the life of St Catherine of Senys by Stephen of Siena
i Item de ordinibus angelorum – the orders of angels (nine orders of angels were described )
j summa de virtutibus - - the summation of virtues ? Peraldus
k de modo confitendi – on contrition
l Item penitencie de iure limitate – on penitence

a Libri W. Hilton ( in Latin) – probably Hilton’s ‘Scale of Perfection’ written in English at Thurgarton and translated into Latin by Thomas Fyslake
b Incendium amoris – a personal account of mystical experiences by Richard Rolle the 14th c English hermit and solitary.
c Sermones ad frates in heremo – said to be written by Augustine of Hippo these sermons to religious brothers contained later additions.
d Augustinus de cognicione vere vite – Honorius of Autun was a 12th c theologian and philophoser whose writings became very popular being in a style accessible to lay people.
e Bernadus ad frates de monte Dei – ‘ Letter to the Brothers of Mont Dieu’ - one of the many writings of William, 12th c Benedicitine abbot of St. Thierry and close friend of St Bernard of Clairvaux.

Summa abbreviate et tabula super veritas theologie – this probably refers to the Compendium Veritatis Theologicae one of the most widely read and copied mediaeval books on theology probably written by the 13th c. Dominician, Hugo of Strasburg.

a Tractatus magistri Bylet - a popular manual of Christian liturgy written by Jean Beleth a 12th c. French theologian.
b Epistola abbatis Cluniacens – possibly letters from Peter the Venerable, 12th c. Abbot of Cluny and one of the first western theologians to study Islam.
c Tractarus de utilitate tribulacionis – probably by Peter of Blois
d Augustinus de fide rerum invisibilium – one of Augustine of Hippos works ‘On faith in things unseen’
e Defensorium dotacionis ecclesie – by Richard Ullerston, Chancellor of Oxford University in 1408 the text is a short defence of ‘Constantine’s donation’ which was claimed to be Emperor Constantine 1st decree giving the Pope authority over the Roman Empire – it was suspected to be a forgery and proven as such in the 15th century.

a Omnigedrium – a miscellaneous collection of short texts
b Epistula Jeronimi ad Rusticum - one of St Jerome’s many letters ( c347- 420) – in this letter he advises a period of monastic training before embarking on the solitary life of a hermit.

Duo quarterni parvi – two small books with calendars

Unus quaternus – a small book of stories - W Barlby?

a Isidore de summon bono – ‘ On the Greatest Good’ by Isidore ( 560- 636) Archbishop of Seville.
b Isidorus de creaturarum – Isidore on the material and spiritual universe.
c Quidam tractarus de baptismate – text on baptism
d Introitus super Cantica canticorum - possibly sermons by St Bernard based on The Song Of Songs.

Quidam parvus liber quondam fratris Carmelite de medicinis - small book on medicine ( once owned by Carmelites)

a Itinerarium mentis in Deum – ‘The mind’s way to God’ was written by Bonaventure 13th c. leading Franciscan theologian.
b Tractarus super cantica – probably by 12th c. Cistercian, Gilbert of Stanford.
c Alloquia spiritus sancti - ‘ Meditations on the Holy Spirit by St Augustine
d Tres quaterni de bonis notabilis -
e Augustinus de cura agenda pro mortuis – On taking care of the dead’ St Augustine
f Augustinus contra mendacium partim – Letter by St Augustine ‘Against Lies’ was a refutation of the heretical teachings of Priscillian.
g Quidem tractatus de compoto – tables for calculating

Hulcote super sapienciam fere - Commentary on Wisdom by Robert Holkot a 14th c. Dominician theologian

Omelie Gregorii - Pope Gregory (590-604) wrote several homilies which formed the basis of later liturgy and sermons.

Lira super psalterium – popular commentary on the psalms by French Franciscan teacher, Nicholas of Lyre (1270-1349)

a Petrus Alfonsus de fabulis- a collection of oriental moral tales written c 1300 by Petrus Alfonsus an Andalucain Jew who converted to Christianity.
b De dispensacione prelatorium in iur
c Statua Othonis legati – The Constitution of Cardinal Otho was produced in 1237 when Otho the papal legate presided at the Council of London.
d Alfabetum herbarum - alphabetical list of herbs.

a Tres quaterni de diversis versibus – three books of assorted verse
b de penis purgartorii Patricii –‘St Patrick’s Purgartory’ by Henry of Sawtry in 12th c.
c Quedam notabilia Augustini de ciutate dei – ‘The City of God’ by Augustine of Hippo 5th c.
d Item allocucio de obediencia inter ipsum et discipulum – not identifieable
e Item de vita Ade et Eue - popular text known by several titles – The life of Adam and Eve.

Item 1 magnus liber in quaternis papyri scilcet xiii quaternis / Joh. W. – not identifiable

Item Gregorius super Ezechielem et plura alia in uno volumine ligat – Pope Gregory the Great (540-604) ‘Commentary on the book of Ezekial’

Item quidam quaternus de cura equorum in quaterno – possibly text on the care of horses

Item Bartholomeus de casibus - a text on Canon law by 12th c. Italian teacher of law Bartholomew of Brescia.

Item quaternus ex dono Willelmi Rypp - book donated by one William Rypp

Item iii quaterni astronomie ligati aliqualiter cum aliis quaternis North - a book on astronomy probably borrowed from the Augustinian house of St James Northampton.

Item unus liber ligatus de astronomia scilet sancti Jacobi juxta North – another book on astronomy from St James Abbey, Northampton.

Item liber de sortibus et alkymia fratris Carmelite – a book on chemistry from Carmelites.

Item liber a de astronomia quondam Johannis Lord – astronomy text ? belonging to one John lord

a item passio Nichodemi – 5th c. apocryphal version of the passion, popular in the middle ages.
b Blesensis super Job – commentary on the book of Job by Peter of Blois
c imago mundi – a popular mediaeval encyclopedia of cosmology, geography and history attributed to 12th c. theologian, Honorius of Autun.
d Item visio Turchildi - 13th c. Vision of Thurkill in which an English peasant dreams of heaven and purgatory - attributed to Ralph abbot of Cistercian Coggeshall.

Item vetus quaternus quondam dominii Thome Ham’lden - old book owned by Master Thomas Hamlden

a Item quaterni de phisica – book on medicine
b item sermonum sancti Augustini – sermons of St Augustine
c item 1 quaternus papyri de dictis Walteri Hilton et aliorum - texts by walter Hilton and others.
d item quaterni de transitu as Jerusalem - one of numerous accounts of journeys to Jerusalem.

a Item liber nemroth – this was a popular mediaeval text on astronomy; its origins and author are not known.
b Item ii quaterni de aspectus planetarum et aliis – two texts on aspects of the planets
c Item vetus quaternus papyri de medicines – two old texts on medicine
d Item I quaternus Willelmi de Montibus –text by William de Montibus 12th c. Chancellor of Lincoln and theologian.
e Item vi quaterni Alberti de animalibus – six texts by Albertus Magnus 13th c. German Dominician friar and bishop and prodigious writer on matters scientific and religious.
f Itemquaterni de questionibus elemosinarum ecclesie – text on alms
g Item v quaterni pergameni de sermonibus – five parchments texts of sermons
h Item prophecia Metodii – prophecies of Methodius of Olympias ( died about 311) a Greek bishop who wrote on numerous topics; some prophecies attributed to him were of much later authorship.
i Item i quaternus vetus de mediciniis - an old text on medicine
j item iiii quaterni de fabulis papyri - four books of stories
k Statuta Benedicti – ‘Chapters of the Augustinian canons’. In 1339 new rules for the Augustinian order were issued by Pope Benedict XII (one of the Avignon popes noted for his zeal against the heretical Cathars)
l Matutine de nominee Ihesu – reflections on the name of Jesus by Henry Suso a 14th c. German mystic.
m Quaternus in gallico dictus la Femme – part of an instruction manual in French written in the 14th c. by Franciscan friar Walter of Bibbesworth.
n Item Bernardus de dignitate sacerdotum – this could be one of several texts on priesthood by someone claiming to be St Bernard or Bernard of Clairvaux or of Cluny.
o Quedam -

The list ends here but evidently forms only a part of the library at Thurgarton Priory.